Brain Drain: Curse for Bangladesh

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Hello everyone! I am Shakib from Bangladesh. I am studying Mathematics at the University of Barisal. I love reading, writing and doing research on various topics. Today I will discuss about brain drain.

Brain drain is a curse for any country. If this process continues, there is a risk of a negative impact on the development of a country. Multifaceted steps are taken in all countries to ensure that talented and skilled manpower does not leave the country and choose foreign countries as permanent workplaces. Some people leave the country and go abroad for money, but they never come back. Bangladesh is suffering from this problem.

Brain Drain

What is the brain drain?

Brain drain usually means that a country's talented academics, scientists, technologists, experts, and skilled human resources leave their home country and choose a permanent job abroad. Brain drain usually occurs from underdeveloped and developing countries. This problem is evident in more or less in all countries today. As a result, all countries are working hard to reduce the transfer of talent.

The development of a country depends on the ability to utilize its talented and skilled human resources. Although this type of intellectual transfer has occurred in the case of all kinds of specialists, doctors, medical scientists, engineers, technologists, mainly on whom the country's progress depends. This class of meritorious people leave the country at a higher rate and migrate abroad. Brain drain is also called a human capital drain.

Sectors of Brain Drain

Although many countries are rich in natural resources, they have not been able to free themselves from the shackles of poverty due to a lack of skilled human resources. Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Bolivia, Somalia, Ethiopia, Myanmar, and even several oil-producing countries in the Middle East are listed. On the other hand, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Switzerland, and Holland, which are very poor in natural resources, have made remarkable progress in the world today by using only human capital.

The difference between natural resources and human capital is that the natural resources run out of reserves one day. The economy suffers when these resources run out due to overuse and over-dependence. On the other hand, the more human capital is used, the more its creativity or excellence will increase. Just as mineral resources are wasted in excessive use, the exact opposite happens in the case of nurturing meritorious people.

The biggest obstacle to Bangladesh's progress is the failure to transform the massive population of this country into human resources.

Why a large number of Bangladeshis go abroad for higher studies and do not return?

The number of students going abroad to study in Bangladesh is increasing. Countries like Malaysia, New Zealand, Japan, or South Korea are also becoming popular with them. Even neighbor India is now one of the destinations of students.

The opportunities for quality higher education are less in the country. Moreover, the concerned people think that the students are going abroad for higher education to get the latest knowledge and global benefits.

According to a report titled 'Global Flow of Tertiary Level Students' by the international organization UNESCO, more than 60,000 students migrated from Bangladesh for higher education in 2016. In 2015 this number was 33 thousand 139. This number has increased by 72 percent in one year. Analyzing the rate of students going abroad, the concerned people say that in 2018, this number may go beyond one lakh.

According to the data, 34,155 people migrated to Malaysia in 2016 alone. Besides, 2,026 people went to Canada, 1,099 to India, 610 to Japan, and 455 to South Korea. The number of Bangladeshi students in Malaysia is increasing as the cost of living, weather, and food habits and social customs are very similar to those of Bangladesh, said the concerned people in this sector.

Besides, 255 Bangladeshi students went to Turkey, 240 to Qatar, 103 to Oman, and 103 to Poland, 328 to New Zealand, 39 to South Africa, 23 to Sri Lanka, 9 to Jordan, 14 to Iran, 12 to Lithuania and 6 to Mauritius.

According to the information given by the concerned, 80 thousand students have gone abroad, and 6 thousand crore rupees have remained in Bangladesh. On the one hand, Bangladeshi money is going overseas. These students are not returning to the country after completing their higher education. Thus both money and talent are being smuggled.

Causes Behind Brain Drain

Chairman of the University Grants Commission, also agreed with this, saying that crores of money are going abroad through brain drain. But we can bring back the students who went abroad. But we are not doing that. We are making laws to run branches of foreign universities in Bangladesh. But I am not implementing the law.

The number of seats in 40 public universities in the country is not more than 50 thousand. But the dream for higher education is of more than 6 lakh students of the country. Due to the low number of seats, many are admitted to public universities, and their dreams of higher education are not fulfilled. These students have to go to private universities, government-private colleges, or foreign universities to the full fill their dreams.

This time 6 lakh students have passed the HSC examination. Almost all of them are dreaming of higher education. Due to the conditions, half of the students in the public university cannot apply. Again, students have to face intense competition even if they are eligible to apply. In the last academic year, 2 lakh 8 thousand 815 students applied for 6 thousand 123 seats in Dhaka University.

There were 39 applicants for each seat. A total of 1 lakh 26 thousand 57 applications were submitted for admission in 4 thousand 924 seats in Chittagong University in the 2017-2018 academic year. As a result, 28 students fought for each seat that year. In the same year, 3 lakh 18 thousand 120 graduates (honors) of Rajshahi University applied for admission against 4 thousand 119 seats. 6 students fought for each seat. As a result, most of the students are being left out in the face of intense competition. Frustration is working among the students.

With the exception of a handful of universities, most universities have questions about the quality of education. In some universities, without increasing the educational facilities, the owners share the money. As a result, nothing is happening in these universities.

Universities that have good standards have high tuition fees. Parents say that some universities in our country are charging more tuition fees than the money required to study abroad. As a result, although the quality is good, the interest of many students to study in these universities is decreasing due to their ability. Due to this, a section of HSC passers is going abroad for higher education.

Moreover, besides going abroad to study, there are also job opportunities. Students say access to higher education is extremely limited for them. Their idea is that the dream of higher education will be fulfilled only if they go abroad and study at a famous university.

Here are some other reasons to go abroad for higher education:

Self-development: Those who study abroad become richer in terms of experience, intelligence and mindfulness. Learning think in a new way about something and living independently. They learn to think and act more independently and more efficiently.

Many qualities are developed in them to succeed in any challenging job or profession. As it turns out, the experience of living abroad is extremely valuable. Sometimes it even plays a positive role in a person's overall life.

Familiarity with a new culture in a foreign land and the knowledge gained from it will surely make the student abroad more confident. As a result, your education and experience are evaluated adequately upon your return home.

New perspectives on the world will be created:

Being abroad will enrich your knowledge of international, political and economic issues. As a result, you will come back with a new perspective on the world due to your location abroad.

People from a different culture, you will feel the issue of world culture as a result of gaining first-hand experience of the rituals of dealing with various matters related to their daily lives. You have to learn a foreign language while living abroad. As a result, you will discover a new language and realize its importance.

Increase professional skills: Higher education abroad will not only enrich education and personality but will also help in enhancing your professional skills. Your professional skills will play a very important role, especially in business, international affairs, and jobs.

The job market will have your needs and particular importance. At present, various international commercial organizations give priority to the recruitment of graduates of foreign universities. Returning graduates are rich in global knowledge and culture and are proficient in one or more languages in addition to their mother tongue.

Areas Affected by Brain Drain

In addition, these graduates are knowledgeable and skilled in intercultural communication, analytical skills, different cultures, and different aspects of society. Since it is possible for them to think of alternatives and take risks in new situations, various international institutions offer maximum opportunities for these graduates to keep in their institutions.

What to do now?

The university is the meeting place or maternity ward of world-class studies, world literature, and world culture. Which way are our universities going? Self-esteem begins in us from the day we are born, whether it is positive or negative. Feelings about yourself are formed, and they are strengthened when you come in contact with the university.

The government is promising to build one new university after another in every district of the country. This is very important for us, but we also need to think seriously about the quality of education in universities.

Universities should not be turned into cheap labour.The university has to be a golden deer where one has to make one's qualifications world-class to take place.

Building a university in a district is like having a college at home. We should remember that university and college are not same. Sadly, there is no university in Bangladesh on a list of two thousand world-class universities. There are several universities in neighbour India and Pakistan.

Final verdict:

A university student has an idea of the knowledge that is currently available around the world. But in reality most of the students in Bangladesh do not have enough experience about all that. One of the reasons is that most of our universities do not have suitable facilities for education.

None of the three renowned universities of Bangladesh - Dhaka University, Jahangirnagar University and Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology are self-sufficient in all respects. Either it is a financial or infrastructural problem.

A research shows that most students do not get residential facilities. Those who get it also don't get it in the whole university life. Those who do not get residential facilities have to rent a mess or a house at a high price. We need to ensure all the facilities in our country for education to stop the brain drain.


Prothom Alo


The daily Star

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